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General Features

The Realism is a estética that has a species of commitment with present time e, therefore, sees the world of objective and accurate form. Its features reflect the trends philosophical of the time, or either, the ideas positivistas, socialist, deterministas and the Darwins are always gifts, as much in literature how much in the other forms of art.

The objetivismo appears as a species of refusal to the subjetivismo and the individualism, characteristic of the Romantic period. With this, the personalismo is substituted by a species of not-I , thus disclosing a man more universal , come back to the things that are to its redor . The emotion loses its space for the ratio and the materialism ( doctrine that explains in evolutivos terms the problem of the origin of the world, thus excusing the divine creation. ).

The Realists look for to portray the man from the comment of its environment and its customs , being worried about the present moment and the daily one , disdaining the nationalism and the historical past. Literature passes then to be an instrument of social denunciation, or either, against everything what it had of bad in the society. Therefore, it is common to find workmanships that satirizam: clero, the monarchy, the bourgeoisie and, in special, the bourgeois family. Had to this ideological position, it can be said that the artists of this period were antimonarchic, antibourgeois and anticlerical .

Shepherd with its flock - Jean Millet


The personages of the romances very pass to be seemed common people and always represent a social classroom, or either, they are typical personages: master, employee, slave, industrial etc. Of this form, he is possible to establish relations you criticize between the text and the society of the time. The attitudes and the behavior of these personages always are explained in objective way, realistic logic or cientifica .

The objetividade nailed for the Realists requires a language of understanding immediate, seemed with a text informative, or either, simple, with short periods and contruída sintaticamente in the direct order. Thus, the inversions and metaphors, much used by the Romantic ones, lose the direction and, consequently, its space.

Another important feature of the Realism is the logical and rational explanation of all the attitudes them occurred personages and events. This wants to say that everything what it is fantasioso and supernatural, as for example acasos and miracles, are rejected by the Realists. Valley to remember that these features were very used for the Romantic ones. With example the bora Lady can itself be cited , of Jose de Alencar, when Aurélia, the protagonist, enriches, in accidental way, when receiving an inheritance coming from a relative who it at least knew.

For didactic ends, the picture below schematizes the main differences between the Realism / Naturalismo and the Romantismo.

Romantismo

Realism / Naturalismo

It comes back to the past Analysis criticizes of the present time
Individalismo (I-lírico) Universalismo (not I)
Emotion Ratio
Subjectivity Objetividade
Metafórica language Direct language
Fancy Facts you observed
Imagination Reality